The types of excavation based on dug out material include topsoil excavation, earth excavation, rock excavation, muck excavation and unclassified excavation. The general purpose of excavating a particular place is also used to categorize excavation into different types, including roadway, channel, footing, drainage, stripping, borrow, bridge and dredging.
An excavation refers to any man-made hole or depression that results from digging up part of Earth's surface and moving the extracted material elsewhere. Topsoil excavation involves displacing the uppermost surface level, including all plants growing on the soil. Earth excavation pertains to scooping out the layer beneath the topsoil, which is where causeways and infrastructures are typically built. Rock excavation entails boring and using explosives to remove massive stones. Muck excavation refers to digging out material with an inordinate water content and unwanted soil composition. The extraction of mixed materials is referred to as unclassified excavation.
Excavations are generally conducted for a variety of reasons. These include building permanent levees through stripping, constructing expressways via road excavation, putting up drainage systems and bridges by means of drainage and bridge excavations, re-routing brooks or tributaries through channel excavation, building structural frameworks via footing excavation, procuring filler material for dams or dikes by using borrow excavation and clearing out water beds through dredge excavation.