Science

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When salt dissolves in water, negative and positive ions are pulled in opposite ways by an electrical field, which creates an electrical current. The ions that are created include sodium, which has a positive change, and chloride, which has a negative charge.

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    • How many times bigger is the sun than the earth?

      Q: How many times bigger is the sun than the earth?

      A: According to NASA, the sun���s diameter is approximately 100 times larger than the diameter of the earth. The earth would have to be lined up 100 times in order to stretch across the face of the sun.
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    • What is outer space made of?

      Q: What is outer space made of?

      A: Outer space contains a low density of particles, primarily hydrogen gas, along with electromagnetic radiation. Many people, however, mistakenly believe outer space is a complete vacuum. The term "outer space" is used mainly to distinguish the space between planets from the planets and their airspace.
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    • How do space craters get their names?

      Q: How do space craters get their names?

      A: The International Astronomical Union (IAU), an organization of astronomers, names the craters on planets and moons in the solar system by giving each planet a creative theme. For example, the moon���s craters are usually named for deceased explorers, scientists and scholars, while large craters on Venus are named for famous women in various professional fields.
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    • Where does the sky end?

      Q: Where does the sky end?

      A: The sky ends at the Karman line, which is located at about 67 miles above sea level. Above this line, space begins. However, technically, the sky does not end so much as the atmosphere, or sky, thins until there is no oxygen left.
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    • Why is it that stars twinkle but planets do not?

      Q: Why is it that stars twinkle but planets do not?

      A: Stars twinkle because they are point light sources. Passing through the atmosphere, the small beam of light constantly shifts by bouncing off particles in the air. Planets are closer, so they appear as discs, with the shifting of light from one side cancelling out the other.
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    • How did the constellation Orion get its name?

      Q: How did the constellation Orion get its name?

      A: Stargazers in ancient Greece observed the "pictures" formed by stars and named the Orion constellation after a mythological hunter. Many origin stories exist, but one popular version recounts Orion's quest to defeat a giant scorpion sent by Gaia, the goddess of Earth, according to the Windows to the Universe.
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    • How are coral reefs made?

      Q: How are coral reefs made?

      A: According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, coral reefs are formed when coral larvae attach themselves to rocks or other hard surfaces found under water along the edges of islands and along coasts. Additionally, plants may also accumulate within the reef. The process is slow and aided by limestone deposits, which settle on the plant and animal life.
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    • How does a fetus expel waste?

      Q: How does a fetus expel waste?

      A: A fetus expels waste through the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord is attached to the fetus at the belly button and is attached to the mother's placenta.
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    • What are the stages of meiosis 1 and 2?

      Q: What are the stages of meiosis 1 and 2?

      A: The stages of meiosis 1 and 2 are as follows: prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis, prophase II, metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II and cytokinesis again. There are two steps of cytokinesis during meiosis, because the cell must divide twice in order to end up with gametes that have only one set of chromosomes. DNA replicates before meiosis.
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    • What are characteristics of gymnosperms?

      Q: What are characteristics of gymnosperms?

      A: Gymnosperms lack the bright, showy flowers and fruit-covered seeds of angiosperms. Gymnosperm literally means “naked seed,” and they are more primitive plants than angiosperms are. Gymnosperms evolved about 300 million years ago.
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    • Is bone stronger than steel?

      Q: Is bone stronger than steel?

      A: According to Materials Today, manufactured alloy steels can be 10 times better in tensile strength than bones and also 10 times better in fracture toughness and strain. Bones have a tensile strength of 150 MPa, a fracture toughness of 4MPa(m)1/2 and a strain-to-failure of 2 percent.
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    • How many pounds of pressure is needed to break a bone?

      Q: How many pounds of pressure is needed to break a bone?

      A: For smaller bones, a pressure of 25 pounds may be enough to break them. The amount of pressure that it would take to break a bone depends on the bone. Some bones are stronger than others.
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    • Why doesn't sand dissolve in water?

      Q: Why doesn't sand dissolve in water?

      A: Silicon dioxide, the primary component in sand, forms in large crystalline structures, which are held together by covalent bonds. These bonds require more energy to break than the polarity of water is able to supply. While water is able to dissolve a minute amount of silicon dioxide, natural water supplies are at the saturation point and unable to dissolve any more sand.
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    • What is the smallest subatomic particle?

      Q: What is the smallest subatomic particle?

      A: The smallest subatomic particle is the quark. Quarks make up larger subatomic particles called hadrons, which include baryons and mesons. Three quarks make up composite particles called baryons, and the combination of a quark and an antiquark comprise a meson.
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    • What is the difference between hard and soft water?

      Q: What is the difference between hard and soft water?

      A: Chemically, the difference between the two is that hard water contains calcium and magnesium ions, while soft water does not. Soft water is easier to lather with than hard water is.
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    • Why are metals malleable and ductile?

      Q: Why are metals malleable and ductile?

      A: Metals are malleable and ductile because they are made of hexagonal and cubic packed structures that can be moved by applying force to them. When force is applied, the atoms slide from one plane past atoms in a different plane.
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    • How did lithium get its name?

      Q: How did lithium get its name?

      A: The word "lithium" is derived from the Greek word for stone, "lithos", because it was first discovered in stone. Lithium is one of several alkali metals discovered and named in the early 1800s. The other two, sodium and potassium were also named after the materials that were being studied when they were discovered.
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    • What are examples of mineral salts?

      Q: What are examples of mineral salts?

      A: Examples of mineral salts include sodium, calcium, ammonium phosphate, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, sulphur and phosphorus. Mineral salts are naturally occurring inorganic substances that are extracted from below the ground surface.
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