The sun heats the Earth unevenly, primarily because the Earth is covered by water and land that heat and cool at different rates. Moreover, the equator heats more intensely than the poles. The Earth is also tilted on its axis, creating seasonal differences at specific latitudes.
Another reason why the Earth is heated unevenly is due to its rotation on its axis. This means that half of the planet is in daytime while the other is night. Solar radiation from the sun hits the Earth more directly at the equator than the poles, making the equator hotter. Due to the different rates of heating of the Earth’s surfaces, which are covered by two completely different substances, the planet receives uneven heating. The land heats up faster than the sea.
Heat from the sun reaches the Earth through radiation. The ground absorbs most of the heat and reflects some of it back into the atmosphere, which serves as a blanket over the planet, holds in the warmth and reflects heat back to the surface of the Earth.
The uneven heating drives all of the weather on Earth. Varying atmospheric temperatures set air in motion, causing weather to occur. Weather typically occurs in the troposphere, which is the lowest layer of the atmosphere. The atmosphere keeps warm and cold air moving and also changes air pressure. The sun's heat helps moisture to rise into the air and form clouds that bring rain, snow or thunderstorms.