The kidneys are located on either side of the posterior of the abdomen. The human body contains two kidneys, which have a bean-shaped structure. Each kidney is surrounded by a fibrous tissue called the renal capsule, which provides the kidney with protection from trauma and damage.
The work of the kidneys is to remove wastes, filter the blood, regulate electrolyte concentrations, maintain acid-base balance and regulate the body’s blood pressure. Kidneys also produce hormones including erythropoietin needed for red cell production and calcitriol which increases blood calcium levels in the blood.
Diseases associated with kidneys include kidney stones, acute renal failure, kidney cancer, diabetic nephropathy, renal cysts and chronic kidney disease.