The scientific adjectives of the four calendar-based seasons are vernal for spring, estival for summer, autumnal for autumn and hibernal for winter. There are also two distinct adjectives for temperate climate regions, and these are prevernal for pre-spring and serotinal for late summer.
The four seasons vary significantly in characteristics and prompt changes in the world around them. In spring, seeds take root and vegetation begins to grow. The weather is warmer and often wetter. Animals wake or return from warmer climates, often with newborns. Melting snow from the previous season, along with increased rainfall, can cause flooding along waterways.
In summer, temperatures may increase to their hottest of the year. If they spike too high, heat waves or droughts may cause trouble for people, animals and plants. Rainfall may increase in some areas. Others may receive less water, and forest fires may become more frequent.
In autumn, temperatures cool again. Plants may begin to grow dormant. Animals might prepare themselves for the upcoming cold weather, storing food or traveling to warmer regions. Various cultures have celebrated bountiful harvests with annual festivals.
Winter often brings a chill. Some areas may experience snow or ice, while others see only cold rain. Animals find ways to warm themselves and may have changed their appearance to adapt.