The physical and chemical properties of vinegar include chemical formula, density, boiling and freezing points and pH. Vinegar is essentially a dilute aqueous solution comprised of acetic acid and water. It undergoes several processes, including alcohol fermentation and acid fermentation, to assume its natural state.
The properties of vinegar, especially its physical qualities, vary depending on the type and amount of minerals, vitamins, fiber and organic compound used for its production. These elements produce slight variations in color, level of acidity, and nutritional value. The chemical formula of vinegar is one of its basic chemical properties. Chemical formula refers to the chemical composition of acetic acid since vinegar is essentially a dilute solution of this acid. A single molecule of acetic acid contains two carbon, four hydrogen and two oxygen atoms. Density is a physical property, defined as the mass per unit volume of solutions. Density varies depending on the composition of vinegars, but is analyzed and measured using a hydrometer. In addition to density, vinegar also has a specific gravity. Specific gravity refers to the ratio of density to the density of a controlled substance, such as water. Vinegar also has properties of boiling and freezing points, which vary depending on acetic acid content. Vinegar also has a pH, or potential hydrogen, level that refers to the number of hydrogen ions in the solution.