The ribosomes make proteins in the cell. Cytoplasmic granules that are rich in ribonucleic acid, or RNA, compose ribosomes. Proteins are made continuously and are responsible for the function, structure and regulation of the tissues and organs in the body.
Proteins are made up of amino acids, and all of them need to be joined correctly so the protein can do its job properly. When a cell makes a protein, the nucleus forms messenger RNA, or mRNA. Then the ribosomes step in to help finish the job.
The mRNA is sent out of the nucleus to the ribosomes. Subunits in the cell attach to the mRNA to start protein synthesis. The mRNA acts as a director of the protein synthesis process. Transfer RNA, or tRNA is also found within the cell. The mRNA directs a ribosome to connect to a tRNA and remove an amino acid. Doing this multiple times, the ribosome builds a long amino acid chain, or polypeptide, that eventually becomes a protein.
There are a number of different types of proteins found within the body, according to the National Institute of Health. These include:
- Antibodies such as Immunoglobulin G
- Enzymes such as Phenylalanine hydroxylase
- Messengers such as growth hormones
- Structural components such as Actin
- Transport and storage such as Ferritin