A nerve doctor is called a neurologist. A neurologist who specializes in surgical care of nerve-related injuries is called a neurosurgeon. Neurology is a branch of medicine that studies the nerves, brain, nervous system and spine, according to the Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library.
WebMD reports that there are three kinds of nerves: motor nerves, sensory nerves and autonomic nerves. Motor nerves control movement by passing signals from the brain and spinal cords to the muscles. Sensory nerves allow the body to feel. They pass information from the skin and muscles to the brain and spinal cord. Autonomic nerves control the involuntary, or partially involuntary, actions of the body, such as heart beat.