Monomers are the building blocks that make up nucleic acid. Also known as nucleotides, they are composed of a five-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Some nucleotides conduct vital cellular functions by functioning as an independent molecule. A common example of this is ATP, which stores energy.
Monomers are linked together through a chemical reaction called dehydration synthesis. When monomers are joined together, they transform into a polymer. If a bond is formed between the sugar of one monomer and the phosphate of another, it creates a polynucleotide.
There are five different types of nucleotides: uracil, cytosine, guanine, adenine and thymine.