Nerve cells, or (neurons, comprise the nervous system. It is the job of these specialized cells to transmit information throughout the body to enable it to function.Continue Reading
Nerve cells perform three jobs. Sensory neurons send information towards the central nervous system to enable taste, smell, touch, sight and hearing. Motor neurons transmit information away from the central nervous system to move the body’s muscles. Interneurons comprise the central nervous system and relay information between sensory and motor neurons.
Nerve cells are made of cell bodies, axons and dendrites. Cell bodies contain the nucleus and other cellular compartments. Their job is to process information and maintain the nerve cell by producing proteins. Axons are long, threadlike structures covered with a layer of fat. Their job is to carry information away from cell bodies. Dendrites are branches from the cell bodies. Their job is to carry information towards the cell body.
Nerve cells are separated by spaces called synapses. Their job is to permit nerve cells to pass electrical or chemical signals to neural or body cells. Endogenous chemicals called neurotransmitters are released to enable one nerve cell to interact with the next.
Nerve cells are similar to body cells in that both have a nucleus that holds genetic information and both are protected by a membrane cover. Both types of cells contain organelles that support the life of the cell, including mitochondria, Golgi bodies and cytoplasm.
Unlike body cells, neurons cannot reproduce. However, research shows that new connections are formed between neurons throughout life.Learn more about Cells
Nerve cells, or neurons, receive electrochemical signals, process them and transmit them to other cells. Most often, these are other neurons, but nerve cells signal muscle cells and other active cells of the body as well. Sensory nerve cells also react to their environments, sending signals to the central nervous system in response to changes.Full Answer >
Although most of the cells in the human body renew themselves periodically, the majority of the neurons in the brain are produced before birth in a process called neurogenesis, and serve humans for their entire lives. Some portions of the brain, however, add new cells during infancy, and one part in particular, the hippocampus, adds cells throughout an individual's lifetime.Full Answer >
Dendrites receive information from neurons in the form of action potentials. These small structures are found at the end of neurons next to the axon.Full Answer >
The longest cells in the human body are neurons. Neurons are cells within the nervous system and carry messages throughout the body.Full Answer >