Where Is Genetic Information Stored?

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Genetic information is stored in several places, which are DNA molecules, genes, chromosomes, mitochondria and the genome. Different amounts and types of genetic information are stored in these locations. The majority of genetic information is stored within individual DNA molecules, although it is found in other cellular locations as well.

Individuals have vast amounts of genetic information, which makes having a storage and organization system critical. Genetic information is carefully arranged, stored, and packed to ensure that it is properly replicated. DNA molecules are the first levels of storage for genetic material. These molecules contain genetic information in their chemical structures. DNA molecules have several parts, including dual backbones, strands of four chemicals that run along their spines, and bridges, or base pairs, between their opposite backbones. The order of the bases in DNA spines houses instructions for producing and replicating substances throughout the human body. These bases, identified by the letters G, A, T and C, spell out genetic codes, and vary among individuals. Genes also store genetic information, but in smaller quantities than DNA molecules. Genes appear as strings of bases grouped into segments. Each gene supplies a blueprint for a specific protein or proteins, which always appear in pairs. Chromosomes and mitochondria also store small amounts of genetic material, and trace amounts are found in genomes too.