Properties of matter, defined by Education Portal, are divided into two groups: physical properties that include color, density, mass, boiling point, volume, solubility, malleability and temperature; and chemical properties that include reactivity with oxygen, reactivity with water, flammability, pH, toxicity and combustion. Physical properties of matter can be observed or measured without changing the composition, while chemical properties can only be observed after a chemical change has occurred.
Matter can occur in three distinct forms: solid, liquid and gas. Science Clarified describes the structural characteristics of these forms as based on the speed at which the molecules move in relation to one another. Physical Science is the study of the properties and structures of matter and space-time. According to About Chemistry, scientists study properties of matter in its various forms to predict the outcome of reactions when developing new products, to speculate about events such as environmental changes, to identify unknown substances and to discover new applications for existing materials. The Science Journal provides real-world examples where the study of matter’s properties lead to developments in a variety of disciplines, including forensic science for criminal investigations, integrated circuitry for electronic devices, conventional and alternative energy sources and creative architecture for bridges and buildings.