The four major landforms of Europe are the Western Uplands, North European Plain, Central Uplands and Alpine Mountains. These forms are all roughly arranged in bands that run from east to west.
The Western Uplands, formed of hard, ancient rock shaped by glaciation, defines the north portion and west coastline of Europe, including Spain, French Brittany, the British Isles and Scandinavia. The low, fertile North European Plain is filled with navigable rivers and stretches from southern Britain through the heart of Europe to Russia. The Central Uplands are primarily wooded hills and highlands in France, Belgium, southern Germany and the Czech Republic, and the Alpine Mountains, marked with high peaks and a few active volcanoes, range from northern Spain across southern Europe to the Caucasus in Russia.