The formula for specific heat capacity is q=mcΔT. "Q" stands for heat, usually given in Joules. "m" is the mass of the given substance. "c" is the specific heat capacity of that substance, and "ΔT" is the change in temperature (initial temperature minus final temperature) in degrees Celsius.
Specific heat capacity is defined as the exact amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a given substance by 1 Kelvin. All substances have different specific heat capacities, and these capacities can also vary depending on the state a substance is in. For instance, in a gaseous state, the specific heat of water is 2.080 Joules per gram degrees Celsius. In a liquid state, water's specific heat is 4.1813 Joules per gram degrees Celsius.
To solve a specific heat problem, simply plug the given information into the equation and solve algebraically.