The possible causes of a persistent salty taste are dehydration, medications, salivary gland diseases and post-nasal drainage, according to the Mayo Clinic. Rare causes include endocrine disorder, nutritional deficiency and neurological disorder, such as migraine and epilepsy.
The Mayo Clinic notes that changes in taste usually do not indicate a serious underlying problem, although they tend to impair a person's enjoyment of food. Dehydration causes salty taste due to insufficient fluid intake or too much fluid loss. Excessive alcohol or caffeine consumption causes fluid loss, leading to dehydration and saliva that is saltier than normal. A salty taste in the mouth is also a side effect of certain medications, such as chemotherapy drugs and anti-thyroid medications. Other potential causes are Sjogren's syndrome, bacterial infection of the salivary glands, sinus infection and allergies.
Treatment for a persistent salty taste is targeted at the underlying cause, says the Mayo Clinic. If a person experiences a salty taste as a medication side effect, stopping or altering the medication is likely to solve the problem. If the cause is a bacterial infection, treating the infection can help get rid of the salty taste. Additionally, taste changes sometimes resolve on their own. People experiencing changes in taste should consult with a doctor to find out the appropriate treatment.