The five regions of the spine from the top of the spine to the bottom include the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral and coccygeal regions. These regions contain 33 vertebrae that form the spinal column, according to Mayfield Clinic, and each region has a particular function in the movement of the body.
The 24 vertebrae in the upper three regions of the spine, including the cervical, lumbar and thoracic vertebrae, allow for movement of the body; the bottom two areas are fused and immovable. The cervical or neck spine, which consists of seven vertebrae, offers the most profound range of motion, while the thoracic or mid-back spine is made up of 12 vertebrae and offers a limited range of motion. The low-back or lumbar spine is made up of five oversized vertebrae that allow the spine the flexibility it needs to carry and lift objects, according to Mayfield Clinic.
The sacral vertebrae are fused together along with the hip bones to form the pelvic girdle and serve as connectors. The coccygeal region is made up of four bones that are fused together to form the coccyx, which is more commonly known as the tailbone. The coccyx is the point of attachment for muscles and ligaments necessary for the pelvic floor.