Several differences between cow and human eyes include pupil shape and iris color, according to The Seattle Post-Intelligencer. For example, cow eyes are brown, with rare exceptions, while human eyes come in a variety of colors. However, range of motion and vision capabilities are more significant differences.
Humans have six eye muscles that allow their eyes to travel in six directions: up, down, left, right, clockwise and counterclockwise. On the other hand, cows only have four muscles, and their eyes are limited to up, down, left and right. However, Pawnation states that cows' eyes make up for their limited motion by providing a wide range of vision. Cows can observe nearly everything going on around them at once.
Another difference between cow and human eyes is pupil shape. Humans have round pupils, while cows' pupils are slit-shaped. Due to their pupil shape and their weak eye muscles, cows have trouble focusing quickly on moving objects, according to Pawnation. They also have poor depth perception due to their monocular vision.
Color perception is another difference. It was once thought that cows could not see color, but Pawnation states that studies show cows can distinguish several colors quite easily, especially yellow, orange and red. On the other hand, except in cases of colorblindness, humans can distinguish a wider range of colors due to a difference in eye anatomy.