Covalent bonds form when atoms share their valence electrons with other atoms to become a more stable molecule. Atoms share their electrons in order to completely fill up their outer-most layer — the valence shell. Two atoms that are covalently bonded have less energy than the individual atoms, making the bonded atoms more stable.Know More
Atoms form covalent bonds as a result of the Octet Rule. The Octet Rule states that all atoms in a molecule need to have eight electrons in their valence shell. This rule can be satisfied by sharing, losing or gaining electrons. A covalent bond allows atoms to satisfy the Octet Rule via sharing.
The reason atoms in covalent bonds satisfy the Octet Rule through sharing rather than losing or gaining electrons is because covalent bonds form between atoms with similar electronegativities. Electronegativity measures the tendency of an atom to attract electrons. Atoms with similar electronegativities are more willing to share electrons than those with different electronegativities.
Up to three covalent bonds can form at one time in a molecule. In a single bond, one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. A double bond shares two pairs of electrons; it is stronger than a single bond, but it also creates a less stable molecule because it is more reactive. The triple bond shares three pairs of electrons, making it the least stable covalent bond.Learn more about Atoms & Molecules
In covalent bonding, valence electrons are shared between two nonmetal atoms in order to fill both outer shells. Nonmetal atoms usually have nearly-complete outer orbitals, which is why they seek to fill them and become stable by sharing electrons with each other.Full Answer >
Chemical bonds are formed when unstable, reactive atoms seek out stable configurations through sharing, donating or receiving valence electrons from other atoms. Bonds are broken down when a specific amount of energy known as the bond energy is applied to the bond.Full Answer >
A glycol molecule is made of two hydroxy (OH) groups and carbon atoms of varying sizes and structures. It belongs to an alcohol family of organic compounds. The most basic of glycol compounds is ethylene glycol. Ethylene glycol, which has the molecular formula HOCH2CH2OH, is also known as a 1,2-ethanediol.Full Answer >
A polar molecule is a particle consisting of two or more covalently bonded atoms with an asymmetric distribution of charges. This occurs in molecules that are asymmetric along at least one axis when one side contains atoms with a greater electronegativity than the other side. This results in shared electrons spending more time on the side with greater electronegativity, causing that side to have a greater negative charge most of the time.Full Answer >