A doctor who specializes in bones is called an orthopedist, according to Dictionary.com. The medical specialization itself is called orthopedics. The word was first used in the early 1850s.
The Encyclopaedia Britannica states that orthopedists are also concerned with the skeletal system's associated structures, including muscles. The central concern of orthopedics is preserving and restoring the skeletal system's best possible function. In the past, orthopedists mostly treated traumatic bone and muscle injuries. Modern orthopedics has seen a broadening of the field and significant advancements in treating skeletal deformities and degenerative diseases. Orthopedists use bone grafts and artificial plastic joints to protect and enhance the function of disease-damaged bones.