What Is the Function of a Condyloid Joint?

A condyloid joint is the junction of two bones which allows movement and rotation in every direction except axial. It is also called an ellipsoid joint because the end of one bone is shaped like an ovoid head that fits into the other, which is shaped like an elliptical cavity.

Also sometimes called a modified ball and socket, the wrist and its wide range of motion are the most common example of a condyloid joint and its function. Joints in the hands called metacarpophalangeal joints, which are located between the metacarpal bones and the phalangeal bones, allow the fingers to be moved in a circular motion, wagged, and opened and closed in a fist. All of the body’s condyloid, or ellypsoid, joints are types of joints in a larger group called synovial joints.

Synovial joints are the most abundant type of joint in the human body, allowing the most extensive range of movement of any type of joint. Common to all synovial joints is a layer of cartilage covering the moving parts, as well as a capsule filled with synovial fluid to cushion and lubricate the working parts as they rub together. There are six sub-types of synovial joint including condyloid joints.