What Are the Abiotic Factors of the Amazon Rainforest?

Abiotic factors in the Amazon rainforest include water, soil, climate, sunlight and air. All populations and organisms in the Amazonia depend on the warm climate and water, while all plants directly feed and depend on sunlight, air and soil nutrients.

Abiotic factors are non-living components that influence the biotic or living organisms that thrive in a specific biome. The presence and amount of abiotic factors in the Amazon are essential to the cycle of life of plants, animals and the decomposition of once-living things. They also affect the adaptation of plants and animals in the rainforest biome.

One example is the liana, which is a climbing vine found in the Amazon and other tropical rainforests. It starts growing from the forest floor, but due to the low amount of sunlight at ground level, it attaches itself to trees and climbs high to reach the forest canopy. When a liana reaches the treetop, it spreads to other trees and intertwines with other lianas, creating a network of vines that support shallow-rooted trees against strong winds.

The rainforest has poor soil nutrients, and as a result, the trees that thrive in it have shallow roots. Huge and tall trees adapt by producing buttress roots or massive ridges that support the trees by blending into the trunk. Some aerial plants, because of the scarcity of sunlight on the forest floor, utilize the warm, humid air to gather nourishment. Most shrubs and bushes that grow in the forest floor get nutrients from decaying plant matter so as not to depend on the low-nutrient soil.