What Were the Positive Aspects of the Mongol Conquest?

The Mongol conquest led to peace between the nations under Mongol rule, the reopening of the Silk Road and the unification of Russia. The Mongols also introduced guns, gunpowder, a writing system and the importance of literacy.

For more than 100 years, the countries under Mongolian rule co-existed peacefully. Historians call this peace the “Pax Mongolica,” and this led to China and Europe reopening trade routes along the Silk Road. Monks, missionaries and traders traveled along these trade routes, as did explorers such as Marco Polo, who traveled to Xanadu, China to meet with Kublai Khan. The Mongols also introduced guns and gunpowder to Europe during their invasion, which led European states to develop firearms technology and build separate armies.

With the tribes of Mongolia united into one nation, Genghis Khan and his descendants imposed and followed the Yasa, or law code. They also oversaw a single army, the first of its kind, according to many historians. This army helped Mongolia extend its influence. The Mongols also introduced the idea of an organized government, which eventually and unintentionally led to its downfall in Russia.

Under Mongol rule, Russia was made up of small city-states with no unified government. To defeat the Mongols and reclaim their country, they had to unite. About 240 years after the Mongols took control of Russia, the Russians overcame and expelled them.