What Were Jumano Houses Like?
The Jumano Native Americans lived in pueblos, stick houses and tee-pees. Historian R. Edward Moore writes that the Texan Pueblan Jumanos lived in two- and three-story buildings made from large, baked-mud bricks. According to the Texas State Historical Society, Pueblan Jumanos in New Mexico built their pueblos from sticks and reeds instead of bricks. The Plains Jumanos were nomadic and lived in tee-pees..
Like other Native American tribes living in pueblos, the Pueblan Jumanos were agriculturalists and did not move frequently in search of game animals. The solid brick pueblos provided shelter from wild animals and warmth on chilly nights. They were elevated structures accessed through a network of retractable ladders. When the Jumanos pulled their ladders up and into the pueblos, raiders and aggressive settlers found it practically impossible to break into the structures.
R. Edward Moore explains that during the daytime, Jumano women sat outside under large awnings made from animal hides, grinding corn and making tortillas. They cooked food in earthenware ovens called hornos, which were made of smaller bricks similar to those in the pueblos themselves. According to Texas Beyond History, male Jumanos hunted game animals. They preferred bison.
The Plains Jumanos did not make permanent settlements. They lived in temporary villages consisting of tee-pees and moved at least once per season in search of edible plants and game animals. According to R. Edward Moore, these Jumanos also facilitated trade between other indigenous tribes in Texas, Oklahoma and Mississippi. Jumano women typically remained in their villages, gathering crops and tending their children. They also wove the baskets Jumano men used to ferry trade goods back and forth across Texas and Oklahoma. Jumano traders used dog teams to haul their goods.