The effects of the Industrial Revolution were vast and far-reaching changes in the political, economic and social structure of the countries in which it took place. Beginning in Britain in 1750, technological innovations and inventions spawned the growth of large machine-production factories and economic specialization. This revolution soon spread throughout Europe and the United States and had a multitude of effects upon each individual nation.
Initially, these changes took place in the landscape of nations, as rural and formerly agricultural workers moved into urban settings. The population shift prompted the growth of large municipalities, and with this, a need for municipal services.
With the advent of large-scale factories, the worker was now much more dependent on an individual employer. Relationships between the capital employers and the laboring class became tense, driving the rise of Marxism in response. Eventually, the dominant political doctrines of both the United States and Great Britain adjusted from lassaiz-faire, in which the government interferes as little as possible to best support the economic system, to one of welfare capitalism, in which the state intervenes to protect the right of the laborer and to offer necessary services.
The Industrial Revolution also gave rise to professions, population expansion and a higher standard of living.