The structure of the government of the Iroquois nation consisted of a council of 50 chiefs who met once a year to settle disputes and create the customs and laws of the confederacy. These laws were codified on strings of wampum to aid recitation and became known as the Book of the Great Law.Know More
The Iroquois confederacy first consisted of five tribes, called the Five Nations, or the people of the longhouse, and it included the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida and Onondaga tribes. In 1722, the Tuscarora joined, and the confederacy became known as the Six Nations. The confederacy originated when a man named Deganawida, who became known as the peacemaker, joined with Hiawatha to proclaim a message of unity to the five tribes. Because the Iroquois were matriarchal, clan mothers chose the 50 chiefs who met to work out the details of the accord.
The confederacy gave great strength to the Iroquois because, although they were warriors, they maintained peace within their alliance and concentrated their attacks on those outside. While the council consisted only of men, the power was held only by women. When a council chief died, women of his family and lineage met together to choose a new chief, who would then be approved by the council. Elaborate rituals marked the choosing of leaders and the making of decisions. For more than a century before the American Revolution, the Iroquois nation governed the northeastern woodlands with unity and efficiency.Learn more about US History
The Iroquois, who were a group of five tribes, lived in New York, mostly along the St. Lawrence River. This tribe of Indians lived in permanent homes, although these homes were moved every 20 years or so due to the soil in the area giving out.Full Answer >
Tools used by the Iroquois included stone axes, flint knives, hoes, arrowheads and knives. Tools of the Iroquois served many purposes: some helped the Iroquois farm, while others facilitated hunting and preparing animals for food and clothing. Iroquois used knives, for instance, to remove animal meat from skin following kills; the meat served as food, while Iroquois used the hides as clothing or to make shelters.Full Answer >
The Iroquois spoke six different languages, including Onondaga, Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida and Tuscarora. The languages have roots with other Native American languages, such as Huron and Cherokee.Full Answer >
The religious beliefs of the Iroquois varied, as the different tribes lived far apart and there are few written records of their practices. However, some commonly held beliefs included worshiping certain god and goddess-like idols, including Sky Woman, Thunders, the Twin Gods and Onatah.Full Answer >