Life in gold rush towns and encampments was economically and physically difficult for miners. Many had spent their life savings or borrowed money to travel to find their fortunes. Some early arrivals found success but removed much of the surface gold during the early years, making life even more difficult.
Prior to news of the discovery of gold at Sutter's Mill, the non-native population of California was under 1,000. As word spread and miners came, the non-native population grew to over 100,000 within a matter of a few years.
Gold-mining towns grew rapidly and usually included shops, saloons and brothels, along with other businesses to meet the miners' needs. However, the rapid growth brought lawlessness to the towns. The mining camps were tent cities that grew rapidly in areas of gold discovery, and people often moved to the next site within months after the gold supplies were depleted. Overcrowded conditions in the towns and camps increased the lawless conditions. Miners became victims of violence, bandits and other crimes. Gambling and prostitution became rampant.
Mining was hard work. The job was dangerous, and finding gold required hard work, skill and good luck. As surface supplies diminished, mining became industrialized, and miners became waged laborers.