Steamboats revolutionized transportation in America by allowing easy travel upriver. Their greater speeds allowed more efficient transportation of perishable goods, and they allowed travel under conditions that would leave traditional ships becalmed. Steamboats proved extremely valuable during the Civil War, in which they helped the Union dominate the nation's waterways.
Before the invention of the steamboat, river travel was typically one way. Boats could easily travel with the current of the river, but any travel in the opposite direction had to be done on land. Steamboats changed this dynamic, allowing boats to easily travel against strong currents and increasing the speed of upriver transportation.
The increased power afforded by a steam engine allowed steamboats to carry more cargo than their traditional counterparts. This allowed operators to increase their profits from shipping more goods and passengers, and it also allowed the development of armored warships. Steam-powered ironclad vessels saw service during the Civil War when the Monitor and the Merrimack fought off Hampton Roads, Va., and their speed and maneuverability far outclassed older sailing ships. Union steamboats proved valuable for securing the Mississippi River and other major waterways, denying the Confederates use of the rivers and helping the Union forces lay siege to important towns in the western theatre.