Napoleon came into power in France due to military success in Italy, as well as his attack on the French Revolutionary government while it was under assault by a Parisian mob. On November 9th and 10th, 1799, he was put into power with two other consuls, Sieyes and Ducos.
Napoleon was able to take advantage of a situation where the French government was bankrupt and inflation, unemployment and taxation were continuing to climb. There was a fear in France that a Jacobin resurgence or royalist resurgence would come, and Napoleon was a strong military general who had continually won against the British. This led the people to believe that this was a sign that Napoleon should be the leader.
Napoleon was officially given the title of First Consul on December 13, 1799, and was given full executive powers. It was also on this day that the new constitution for France was proclaimed to all. A short 5 years later, Napoleon would become the first Emperor of France.
Napoleon was born in 1769 and died in 1821. He is remembered for his ambition to expand his country through the military. He also reorganized education while in office, rebuilt and added additional power to the military training programs and created the Concordat with the Pope.