The Industrial Revolution changed labor patterns, wealth, material production and population distribution. The rise in industrial labor opportunities led to a population shift from rural areas to cities.
Before the industrial revolution, more than 80 percent of people lived in the country side. As people continued migrating from the rural areas, small towns grew into large cities. The new industries were stimulated by the process of urbanization, which concentrated factories and workers together.
However, the population spike led to dreadful leaving conditions; the cities became crowded, dirty places where epidemics often broke out. The burning coal of the factories polluted the air and coated the buildings with grime, and water supplies were polluted by waste.