The years 1750 to 1900 ushered in great change in Britain, with the population increasing by over 260 percent and shifting away from rural villages and into cities, with corresponding improvements in transportation, industry and communication. Historian Arnold Toynbee argued in 1883 that during this time period, Britain underwent an Agricultural and Industrial Revolution, but more-recent scholars have insisted that these changes were more gradual than what Toynbee suggested.Continue Reading
The Agricultural Revolution began during the 17th century, with various developments and innovations in agricultural technology causing food production to outpace population growth for the first time. England's population exceeded 5.5 million and freed up labor while allowing people to improve their standards of living, eventually leading to the Industrial Revolution.
The increasing population led to a boom across many industries, most notably in the textile factories that switched from the cottage industry to a factory system. Cotton was and remains the most important non-agricultural crop. New inventions massively increased worker productivity, eventually replacing the need for humans to power them. Cheaper and stronger iron was developed that impacted every major industry.
The most-famous invention of the Industrial Revolution was the steam engine that powered transportation and enabled the growth of factories and mills.Learn more about Ancient History
The Market Revolution, which took place in America from around the turn of the 19th Century to the mid-1800s, saw radical and sweeping changes take place within the United States economy and infrastructure, from slave trading and commercial agriculture to the development of cities and overhauls of transportation and communication systems. It was also a time of increased immigration, technological innovations and comprehensive changes to labor and corporate law.Full Answer >
The Industrial Revolution brought changes in the textile industry, communication, transportation and the overall quality of life. All of these changes helped move society from being more agrarian to being primarily industrial.Full Answer >
Britain colonized India from 1757 to 1947. The colonization was orchestrated by the East India Company, a British corporation that traded cotton, silk, spices and tea.Full Answer >
Great Britain won the Opium War against China. Their victory created foreign spheres of influence in China, allowed Great Britain to take possession of Hong Kong, opened China to European influence and created a drug epidemic in southeastern Asia.Full Answer >