At its height, the Roman Empire covered much of Europe, including areas that would become Portugal, Spain, Andorra, England, France, Monaco, Luxembourg, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Italy, San Marino, Malta, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Hungary, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Armenia. It also included territory in the Middle East and Africa that later became Syria, Iraq, Cyprus, Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.Continue Reading
The Roman Empire also annexed some outlying areas. Portions of what would later become the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Sudan were at one time administered by the empire.
The empire began in 27 B.C. when the Roman Senate formally granted Octavian, Julius Caesar's adopted son, greater power and the new title Augustus, effectively ending the Roman Republic. It reached its height in the year A.D. 117. By the third century, the overextended empire struggled to handle invasions, civil unrest and economic uncertainty.
Emperor Diocletian was able to stem the empire's decline somewhat, partially by refusing absolute power and splitting the empire first in half and then into four regions between A.D. 286 and 293. The Western Roman Empire fell when Romulus Augustus was deposed in A.D. 476 , while the Eastern Roman Empire evolved into the Byzantine Empire, lasting until 1453, when the Ottomans took Constantinople.Learn more about Ancient Rome
Eastern Europe includes the countries of Russia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Moldova, Croatia, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Ukraine, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Kosovo and Macedonia. These countries are commonly grouped into the subregions of Eastern Europe, East Central Europe, the Baltics and the Balkans.Full Answer >
The Balkan countries, as of 2014, are Romania, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Albania, and Greece. The European section of Turkey also lies within the Balkan Peninsula.Full Answer >
As of 2014, countries with a sovereign monarchy are the United Kingdom, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain, Luxembourg, Belgium, Brunei, Bahrain, Liechtenstein, Andorra, Jordan, Kuwait, Lesotho, Saudi Arabia, Monaco, Oman, Qatar, Bhutan, Swaziland, Thailand, Cambodia, Japan, Malaysia, Tonga, the United Arab Emirates, Morocco and Vatican City. Most of the monarchies are hereditary, which means they are passed down from one family member to another, usually father to son.Full Answer >
Western Europe consists of nine countries, including Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, Netherlands and Switzerland, according to the United Nations. This designation of Western Europe is part of the geoscheme for the Europe continent that was developed by the United Nations Statistics Division. Europe is divided into other subdivisions, as well, including Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe and Central Europe.Full Answer >