Egypt was colonized by several civilizations throughout history, including the Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Mamelukes, Ottoman Turks, French and British. Egypt gained full independence from the British in 1936.
Colonization by the French and the British had a strong influence on Egyptian society. Napoleon Bonaparte invaded the country in 1798 and the presence of the French helped secularize and modernize Egypt. Britain seized control in 1822 when the Egyptian government was in debt to Europe. Egypt received partial independence in 1922, but it was still influenced by Britain. Fourteen years later, Egypt became an independent country. In 1952, the Egyptian monarchy was overthrown, and in 1953, the Arab Republic of Egypt was formed.