The characteristics of Mesopotamian civilization included the city-state, irrigation, polytheistic religion, three distinct social classes and the development of the solar calendar. Mesopotamian civilization is thought to have been the first human civilization center of the world.Continue Reading
The Sumerians found the Mesopotamian area before any other group of people and settled there. They built their cities along the Lower Mesopotamia rivers and created technological advances including wheels and plows as well as detailed irrigation systems, using canals and levees, that allowed crops to flourish. In fact, the name "Mesopotamia" means the "land between the rivers."
One of the most important parts of the Mesopotamian civilization was its religion. The Sumerians believed in multiples gods and goddesses, and they built seven cities with a temple at each one dedicated to a different divine figure. Each city also had its own army for protection against other civilizations. Everything that the Sumerians did, they did in consultation with the gods and the goddesses. These deities were instrumental parts of the Sumerians lives.
Another advancement in the Mesopotamian civilization was the invention of the solar calendar. The solar calendar had 12 months that were based around the moon though there were no seasons. It was not until 1582 that the Gregorian calendar was introduced.Learn more about Mesopotamia
Ancient Mesopotamian farmers used basic farming tools, such as a plow and sickle. The first Mesopotamian farmers began cultivating crops around 6,000 B.C. using a simple stone plow that was pulled by oxen. The stone plow was typically attached to a shaft made of wood.Full Answer >
There is no such thing as the Mesopotamian alphabet; instead, the Mesopotamians used around 400 to 1,000 symbols to write with. At first, they used symbols representing different trading goods. These symbols evolved over time, and more were added until the writing system, called cuneiform, became a complete writing system.Full Answer >
During the Ancient Mesopotamian period, the manufacture of pottery evolved from crude, handmade objects to commercial pieces produced by the thousands on the first potter's wheel.Full Answer >
Online resources including Mesopotamia.co.uk, Eduplace.com and Wikipedia.org provide information to read about ancient Mesopotamian geography. These resources are free to use and are written in a way that is accessible and educational for both adults and children.Full Answer >