Ethiopia and Liberia were the only two African countries that were not colonized. Liberia was founded by freed slaves and Ethiopia resisted Italian attempts at colonization.
Between 1881 and 1914, an invasion and occupation of Africa by European countries resulted in a mass colonization of most African countries. This invasion is referred to as the "Scramble for Africa." By 1914, 90 percent of Africa was colonized, compared to 10 percent in 1870.
Ethiopia, known as Abyssinia at the time, was invaded by Italy twice but their efforts to colonize the country were unsuccessful and Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, remained independent. Liberia was established as an independent colony created for freed slaves by the American Colonization Society. In 1839, it was declared as a commonwealth and, in 1847, Liberia was declared completely independent.