What Natural Barriers Protected Egypt From Invasion?

The natural barriers that protected Egypt from invasion were the Mediterranean Sea that borders the country to the north, the numerous rapids and waterfalls, known as cataracts, that formed the upper southern section of the Nile river, the expansive deserts to the east and west, and the massive Sahara Desert to the south. The river valley civilization of Egypt coexisted with the ancient Mesopotamian civilization.

The ancient Egyptian society was largely dependent on the Nile River. Unlike the irregular flooding of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that surrounded Mesopotamia and paved the way for constant invasion, the Nile’s annual periodic overflow and the country’s geographic isolation allowed the Egyptians to live in peace and stability.