The Eiffel Tower was built in 1889 to commemorate the French Revolution, which concluded 100 years before. The tower serves both as a monument and as a major tourist attraction in France.
Although there were several hundred design submissions for the monument, the winner was Alexandre-Gustave Eiffel. Many other architects protested this decision at first, but the choice was upheld, and Eiffel was awarded the project. The Eiffel Tower became the tallest building in history, and remained so until 1930. It is both a functional and attractive building that is the result of Eiffel's research into the wind and air resistance of different materials.