The ancient land of Mesopotamia occupied all or part of the land that now comprises the modern day countries of Iraq, Iran, Syria and Turkey. The region was called "Mesopotamia," which means between two rivers, because it was located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Early civilizations were drawn to the area because frequent flooding from the rivers made the soil prime for farming. Civilization spread as farmers developed ways to irrigate land located farther away from the rivers. Although many different nations made up the Mesopotamian region, there was a common early form of writing called cuneiform. Many of the cultures also shared gods.