Several types of plants grow in the Arctic and Antarctic regions of the world, including the Arctic willow, Antarctic pearlwort, pasque flower and bearberry. Generally, polar plants are small and grow low to the ground.
There are around 1,700 plant species living on the Arctic and Antarctic tundras. Basically any plant with shallow root systems can grow in that type of environment.
There are two types of vascular plants indigenous to Antarctica: the Antarctic hair grass and Antarctic pearlwort. Both plants grow on the shores where the temperatures are warmer and there is more precipitation.
Trees cannot grow in the polar regions because the temperatures are too cold and the growing cycle is too short.