The geography of the New England Colonies is diverse. Some New England states have rocky soil, hilly landscapes and thick forests, while others have flat land and rich soil. The southern colonies are bordered by the Appalachian Mountains on the west and all of the colonies, with the exception of Pennsylvania, are bordered by the Atlantic Ocean on the east.
The New England Colonies are divided into three regions: New England, the middle colonies and the southern colonies. New England is generally considered to include the states of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire and Rhode Island. This area is not very conducive to farming as it is extremely rocky. In addition, most of the rural areas are covered with forests and woods. The climate of New England is far colder than the other regions and winters tend to last longer.
The middle colonies include the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland. This region has a mix of flat farm lands and thick forests near the border of the Appalachian Mountains. The middle colonies are also notable for having a complex system of rivers, including the Delaware River and the Hudson River. The southern colonies, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, are very similar to the middle colonies with regard to geography. However, the southern colonies are closer to the Appalachian Mountain Range and the climate is warmer and drier.