The Massachusetts Colony had a jagged coastal and hilly geography, characterized in by tree-covered mountains, rivers and rocky soil. The poor quality of this soil made the region difficult for the Colonists to farm efficiently.
The main cities of the Massachusetts Colony were Boston, Quincy, Plymouth, Salem, Lexington and Concord. Of these, Plymouth was the first to be founded. It was established by the Pilgrims from the Mayflower in 1620.
The climate had cold winters and mild yet brief summers, which affected the growing season. Chief among raw materials were fish, whales and wood. Corn, pumpkins, rye, squash and beans were among agricultural resources.