European countries that are not part of the European Union include Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Albania, Switzerland, Turkey, Russia, Macedonia and Montenegro. Of these, two countries, Russia and Turkey, straddle Europe and Asia.
Although Norway, Iceland and Liechtenstein are not members of the EU, they have agreements with the EU that allow their citizens to live and work in member countries without work permits. Switzerland has a similar agreement, though its agreement is slightly more limited. The decision about whether to permit Turkish citizens to live and work within member countries of the EU is left to the individual member nations. The EU was formed in the early 1990s as the result of the Treaty on the European Union for the purpose of allowing European nations to demonstrate unity concerning matters of commerce, people and currency. Although the individual nations of the EU retain their sovereignty, they share a common currency and support each other on matters of foreign policy. Citizens of member nations are free to travel amongst the member nations without passports and to obtain jobs and homes within member nations without having to apply for visas or special work permits. The euro is the currency of the EU.