Countries and U.S. states that are affected with the Mediterranean climate all year round includes southwest and southern Australia, central Chile, parts of California between San Diego and Cape Mendocino, countries in the Mediterranean basin, and the Western Cape in South Africa. All these regions are located approximately 30 degrees to 40 degrees south or north of the equator and are typically at the west sides of the continents.
The majority of the regions with Mediterranean climate only have two seasons. Summer ranges from warm to dry and hot, and it lasts longer than winter. Winters are short, cool and wet. The winter and summer temperatures, however, vary depending on the geographical location of the regions and are greatly affected by water temperature and the changes in ocean currents. Although snow is rare in a Mediterranean climate, some places located farther north, such as Madrid, can experience annual snowfall and frost.
About 2 percent of the world's total land area experiences a Mediterranean climate, the largest of which is found in the Mediterranean basin that surrounds the Mediterranean Sea. The basin covers portions of Asia, Africa and Europe. One of the distinct characteristics of the regions in the Mediterranean basin is the ability to grow olive trees. The tree is mainly cultivated in regions of the world with a Mediterranean climate. It also grows in places with temperate climates with dry winters and rainy summers like in Cordoba Province in Argentina, but the physical characteristics of the plant vary due to climate differences.