Major landforms in Colombia include the Andes Mountains, the Cordilleras, Atlantic lowlands, Santa Marta Mountains and the Amazon rainforest. Colombia lies in the northwestern part of South America. It contains diverse interior geographical features, and enjoys miles of coastline formed by the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean.
The South American nation Panama borders Colombia to the north, while Venezuela and Brazil share its borders along the east. Peru and Ecuador lie south of Colombia. The coastal regions of Colombia contain low-lying flatlands and rivers. The interior contains mountain ranges, and houses most of Colombia's population, along with Bogota, its capital city.
The Andes Mountains, one of Colombia's iconic landmarks, contain tall peaks that transition into plains along the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Andes Mountains are formed from three different Cordilleras. Cordillera Occidental, the Western Range, parallels the Pacific coast. Cordillera Central, the central mountain range, runs diagonally from northeast to southwest. It forms the spine of the Andes Mountains, while the Cordillera Orient branches off to the east.
The Santa Marta mountain range, though smaller than the Andes ranges, contains Colombia's two highest mountain peaks, Cristobal Colon and Simon Bolivar. Interior mountains give way to the Amazon rainforest, grass-covered flatlands and plateaus and rivers in the southern part of Colombia.