Ancient Mesopotamia had a dry glacial climate, along with Egypt and other empires of the ancient Near East. Mesopotamia was located in what is now known as Iraq.
Mesopotamia, which translates to "the land between the rivers," experienced the severe cold drought of 6200 B.C. This was an abrupt, short-lived cooling of the Earth's surface that was centered in Greenland, but affected other areas.
Before and after this cooling period, Mesopotamia had a "warm and wet" climate. This climate made Mesopotamia into a sort of "Garden of Eden" in the surrounding desert. The climate allowed for hunting and herding, or nomadic pastoralism.