Italy is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Tyrrhenian Sea and Ligurian Sea to the west, the Adriatic Sea to the east and the Ionian Sea to the south. Italy is a country located in the southern region of Europe and includes the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. The capital is Rome.
Italy is a boot-shaped peninsula. It is bordered on the north by the countries of Austria, France, Switzerland and Slovenia. San Marino is located within northern Italy, while the Holy See (Vatican City) is located within Rome.
Italy became a city-state in 1861 under King Victor Emmanuel II. The monarchy was replaced with a democratic government in 1946 after World War II.