Alabama has a large number of native species, including wild boar, white-tailed deer, bobcats, red and gray foxes, coyotes, North American river otters, skunks, raccoons, opossums and armadillos. Alabama is also home to a diverse population of birds, insects and reptiles.
Some species that were once found in Alabama have been driven out of the state, such as the elk, bison, red wolf and cougar. Some other species, such as the black bear, are still found there as of 2014 but in small numbers. There have also been unconfirmed sightings of the jaguarundi, a small otter-like cat. During the summer, the endangered manatee can be found in coastal waters. The Carolina parakeet was found throughout Alabama but was driven to extinction by loss of habitat.
Alabama is also known for its game fishing, especially its catfish and crayfish. One-hundred and fifty-eight different species of bird breed in Alabama regularly, while 174 additional species winter there. These include wild turkeys, birds of prey, such as kestrels and hawks, shorebirds, woodpeckers, and loons. The state also has 62 species of mammals and 93 species of reptiles, including the American alligator in the southern portions of the state. The eastern indigo snake is believed to have been extirpated from Alabama but was reintroduced starting in 2010.