An essay written in the third person refers to characters as "he," "she," "it" or "they" and never references the author using words like "I" or "we." Third person narration typically makes an essay sound more professional and less casual.
An essay written in third person appears more factual than an essay written in first person, as it creates the most distance between the author and the reader. Whereas an essay written in first person clearly broadcasts the author's opinions and thoughts, a third person essay appears more objective, with the author serving as a detached observer. Third person narration is commonly used in research papers, biographies, journalism and many other forms of writing.