Some types of population movement include internal migration, cross-national migration, continuation migration, reverse migration and retirement migration. Population movement is often caused by push factors, such as deepening poverty, political instability and environmental degradation. Pull factors, such as better jobs, lower taxes, better health care and better climate, also contribute.
Migration and the characteristics of migrants are often shaped by swings in national economic conditions. Migrants typically move in order to improve their situation, and economic factors are typically the main motivation behind migration. In 2008, approximately half of the total population of current international migrants left their homes to find better jobs and opportunities for their families, states the International Labour Organization.
Civil strife, political persecution and religious persecution also compel migrants to cross national borders. These types of immigrants may be considered to be refugees or asylum seekers in the countries that receive them. The qualifications for refugee status was defined by the 1951 Geneva Convention. The mandate bound receiving countries from returning newcomers to places where they could be persecuted.
Internal migration patterns within a country are often described as movement from rural to urban areas. Mental health problems are often a consequence associated with urbanization caused by migration. Some of the mental health problems that are linked with urbanization include depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and alcohol and substance abuse.