What Are Some Types of Corruption?
Types of corruption include grand, political, corporate and systemic corruption. Other types of corruption include petty and administrative corruption. Conditions such as low and irregular salaries, access to the means of corruption, and inadequate and ineffective controls encourage corruption.
Grand corruption is the distortion of policies and interference with the central functioning of the state at high levels of government. It benefits leaders at the expense of public good. Petty corruption is the abuse of power by midlevel public officers. The officers may request a bribe from citizens to offer services in institutions such as public schools, hospitals or police departments. Petty corruption involves small amounts of money.
Political corruption involves political decision makers who manipulate policies and rules of procedure in the allocation of resources to sustain power, wealth and status. It also includes electoral malpractices, kleptocracy and diversion of public resources to benefit election financiers. Corporate corruption occurs in the interactions between businesses and their clients or suppliers, or when a corporate leader benefits from the use of a company’s resources.
Systemic corruption is a situation where corruption dominates the major processes and institutions of the state. Corruption becomes an essential and integrated aspect of the society. Administrative corruption includes bribery and favoritism to allow businesses to pay lower taxes or to give access to low-level procurement contracts.
Corruption affects economic development, political stability and government legitimacy. It also distorts resource allocation and can lead to other illegal practices.