Three characteristics of population are population density, fecundity or birth rate and mortality or death rate. Characteristics of specific populations can be measured, evaluated and tracked for comparison purposes or to measure a population's success or decline. Other population characteristics that could be considered when examining human populations include a range of demographic details, health indicators and socioeconomic information.
Population density is a measure of the total number of individuals in a given space at a given time. Because populations are dynamic, indices of measurements taken at different times are useful in comparing population density at different intervals.
The fecundity or birth rate of a population can be expressed as the theoretical maximum number of offspring produced in a population. This also is known as a crude birth rate. Fecundity is also expressed in terms of realized or ecological fecundity, which is the actual number of offspring produced in a population under actual environmental conditions and ecological constraints.
Mortality or death rate is a measure of the number of individual deaths in a population over a given period of time.
In ecology, population refers to a group of individuals of the same species who do or could interbreed and who occupy a specific geographical area.
Other factors unique to a population also include its distribution and dispersion. These characteristics concern how individuals spatially relate to others in the population.